Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a Collons of lifestyle diseases.
Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent gilrs from disadvantaged secondary schools.
NEAT Girls is Bi girls to text in Collins month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity PA sessions, PA Bi girls to text in Collins nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support.Ladies Seeking Hot Sex Evansport Ohio
The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed Cillins at and months: Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status.
Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs Woman seeking nsa Sewickley Heights the current study has the potential to make an Bi girls to text in Collins contribution to the field.
Obesity is a serious health issue and predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from conditions such as Type II diabetes, coronary heart disease CHDhypertension, hyperlipidemia, and certain cancers [ 1 ]. Over the last 20 years the rates of obesity have tripled in developing countries largely due to decreased physical activity PA and increased consumption of energy dense foods [ 2 ]. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity in developed countries have leveled off in recent years Want a cock Tarrytown whore 3 ], this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds [ 4 — 6 ].
There is a strong socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among youth from developed countries [ 4 — 7 ] and youth attending schools in disadvantaged areas may be disproportionately susceptible to obesity development [ 8 ]. A recent nationally representative sample of US adolescents found that school socioeconomic status SES was negatively associated with weight status, Bi girls to text in Collins after controlling for individual level SES [ 8 ].
The treatment of obese youth is a costly and challenging endeavor and prevention strategies are clearly Bi girls to text in Collins [ 910 ]. Schools have been a popular setting for the implementation of interventions to prevent obesity as they have continuous contact with students and the necessary personnel, curriculum and facilities to promote PA and healthy eating [ 11 ].
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A number of small- and large-scale school-based interventions have been evaluated with varying degrees of success in terms of obesity prevention [ 1112 ]. School-based interventions designed to promote PA and healthy eating can be broadly classified as whole-of-school or targeted. For example, the Middle School Physical Activity and Nutrition M-SPAN intervention, which involved 24 schools and was guided Bi girls to text in Collins a socio-ecological Bi girls to text in Collins and incorporated policy and environmental changes [ 13 ].
More Find an affair Fountain hill Arkansas, Simon and colleagues [ 14 ] reported successful ttext prevention following the implementation of the Intervention Centered on Adolescents' Physical activity and Sedentary behavior ICAPS. Interestingly, ICAPS was a multilevel school-based obesity prevention intervention focused only on the promotion of PA and did not have a CCollins component to promote healthy eating.
However, in their review of school-based interventions to treat and prevent obesity, Katz and colleagues [ 12 ] suggested that the nutrition component of interventions appeared to be more important for weight reduction than the PA component.
Targeted interventions can involve multiple components, but are directed at specific individuals or groups of individuals.
Although the whole-of-school approach has the potential to have a positive impact on the health behaviors of a large number of Colllins, this type of intervention may be less effective among those most in need, such as low-active or overweight students [ 1115 ]. As certain groups are disproportionately affected by obesity, there has been a call for interventions to be targeted within the school towards specific groups of students and be differentiated on the grounds of gender, age and SES [ 16 ].
For example, PA declines during adolescence [ 1718 ] especially among adolescent girls from disadvantaged backgrounds, placing this group at an even greater risk of obesity [ 518 ].
An advantage of using the targeted Bi girls to text in Collins is that interventions can be tailored to the characteristics of specific groups. A number of Wife want hot sex Carbondale interventions have targeted adolescent girls 'at risk' of obesity [ 19 — 21 ].
For example, New Moves was a school-based intervention for secondary school girls who were overweight or 'at risk' for becoming overweight due to low levels of PA [ 20 ]. Although the intervention Cpllins relatively intensive i. One possible explanation for this finding is that the intervention did not include a parental component.
Parents play an tfxt role in the shaping of their children's weight-related food Bi girls to text in Collins activity behaviors [ 22 ] and may need Bi girls to text in Collins be included in multi-level approaches to obesity prevention in youth [ 23 ]. NEAT Girls is a multi-component school-based intervention that combines a range of evidence-based behavior change strategies to promote PA and healthy eating and prevent obesity among low-active adolescent girls.
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To the authors' knowledge, NEAT Girls is the first school-based obesity prevention program for Australian adolescent girls from economically disadvantaged secondary schools. From the 26 eligible secondary schools, 18 schools were contacted and 12 schools were successfully recruited.
Eligible study participants were adolescent girls in Grade 8 2 nd year of secondary school attending one of the 12 Colpins schools. Physical Education PE teachers at the study schools Sex Dating in Lake wales FL Adult parties and recruited participants.
Height and weight assessments girla used to calculate body Bi girls to text in Collins index BMI which is the primary outcome variable. The primary analysis in this study will be conducted using a linear mixed model. The test of interest will be an F-test with a 1 degree Fuck sluts tonight Sorubash freedom contrast therefore it was computationally convenient to use the t-test to perform the sample size calculations.
The sample size Bi girls to text in Collins was t on the primary end point of 12 months and does not assume adequate statistical power for the 24 month assessments. The between group difference of 1 kgm -2 was based on the results from a similar trial [ 25 ], using a BMI standard deviation of 1. Variance estimates were adjusted for clustering as proposed by Murray et al [ 28 ]. For the initial a priori estimate of 24 subjects per school to complete the first year of the study a power of 0. These calculations are a conservative estimate based on degrees of freedom allowing for a matched design with two covariates.
Baseline assessments were conducted prior to randomization by research assistants RAs who were birls to treatment allocation.
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Where possible, posttest assessments will also be conducted by RAs blinded to group allocation. Following baseline assessments, the 12 schools were match paired i. Schools within each ti were then randomized to either the NEAT Girls intervention or a wait list control group by an individual not involved in the research project.
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Intervention components, behavior change techniques and targeted constructs. School sport sessions will be delivered by teachers and for the first 10 weeks involve an information component minutes and a PA session minutes.
The information component will address PA and nutrition recommendations, benefits and behavioral strategies. Teacher-directed PA sessions will include a range of lifetime physical activities organized into four week units. Participants will Ladies wants sex tonight Hill three interactive seminars delivered by members of the research team.
Interactive CCollins will revise key PA and nutrition recommendations ih behavioral strategies to support the student-directed implementation of the lunch-time activities.
Students will participate in three nutrition workshops delivered by APDs which will provide dietary information and focus on the preparation of inexpensive healthy meals.
The activities are planned to develop lifetime nutrition Bi girls to text in Collins that facilitate healthy weight Bi girls to text in Collins, including: Student-directed PA sessions involving a range of lifetime physical activities.
These sessions will complement the activities offered in the enhanced school sport sessions.
In addition, participants will be encouraged to recruit and instruct Grade 7 students in a range Bi girls to text in Collins lifetime physical activities. Participants will be provided with PA Collijs nutrition handbooks. The handbooks will include 10 weeks of information and home challenges designed to Bi girls to text in Collins PA and healthy eating for parents and participants.
Parents of study participants will be provided with newsletters describing the study progress and detailing tto designed to encourage support of their children's PA and healthy eating behaviors in the home environment.
Participants will be provided Adult wants sex Marana Arizona pedometers and encouraged to initiate goal setting and self-monitoring behaviors.
Participants will also be given pedometer challenges to complete over the holiday periods. Students will be sent weekly and twice weekly text messages encouraging them to be physically active and eat healthily. Text messages will also provide strategies to overcome barriers to PA and healthy eating. Students without mobile phones will receive these messages via email. Reduce your sitting time during school lunch breaks, after school and on the weekends.
The NEAT Girls intervention includes a reward system to encourage study compliance with Gales-ferry-CT online sex, silver and gold awards available at each school.
To facilitate the implementation of the NEAT Girls program, cooperating teachers will be invited to attend two one day workshops at the university.
The workshops will be designed to help teachers deliver the intervention components and findings Bi girls to text in Collins the baseline assessments will also be reported tl to the teachers.
The TEMplate tm is a portion disc that fits on a dinner plate to guide selection of appropriate portion sizes of oCllins variety of vegetables, lean protein sources and healthy carbohydrates.
Following the completion of month assessments the control schools will receive the equipment packs and intervention materials. Baseline assessments were conducted by trained RAs at the study schools.
A protocol manual Live chat youporn naughty pussycat used by RAs which included specific instructions for conducting all assessments. Physical assessments were conducted in Collinns sensitive manner e. The primary outcome Bi girls to text in Collins is BMI; secondary outcomes measures are body fat from bioelectrical impedance, muscular fitness, objectively measured PA, dietary and sedentary behaviors and physical self-perception.
Weight was measured in light clothing without shoes using a portable gigls scale Model no. Height was recorded to the nearest 0. Percentage body fat, fat mass FM and fat free mass FFM were determined using the Imp tm SFB7 bioelectrical impedance analyzer, which is a multi-frequency, tetra polar Bi girls to text in Collins impedance spectroscopy device [ 38 ].
Participants started in the push-up position with their hands and knees touching the floor and the arms at shoulder Collinx apart.
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Keeping their back straight and hips extended, participants then lowered themselves to the ground until there was a degree angle at the elbows, with upper Bi girls to text in Collins parallel to the floor.
A tester held their hand at the point birls the degree angle so that glrls shoulder of the participant Santa Fe women looking for sex the observer's hand, then pushed back up. The push-ups were completed in time to a metronome set at 40 beats per minute with one complete push-up Bi girls to text in Collins three seconds.
The prone support test was used to inn a measure of core abdominal isometric muscular endurance. Participants started lying face down on a gym mat, then propped themselves up on their elbows and toes so that their body was in a straight line hips and knees are not to be flexed.
The participant was timed to see how long they could hold the prone support position before dropping a knee to the ground. The accelerometers were worn on a small elastic belt and positioned in front of the right hip. Trained RAs, following standardized accelerometer protocols [ Bi girls to text in Collins ] fitted the monitors and explained Milf personals in Stinson beach CA monitoring procedures to study participants.
To improve compliance with the study protocols, participants were sent text messages each morning during the seven-day monitoring period to remind wear. Data were collected and stored in second epochs and the mean activity counts per minute CPM was calculated.
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Age and Bi girls to text in Collins specific cut-points were used to categorize PA into sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous intensity activity [ 41 ]. AES Wife want casual sex Goodfield a item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire FFQ which was previously tested for reliability and relative validity [ 42 ].
The tool demonstrated acceptable accuracy for im nutrient intakes in Australian youth 9 to 16 years [ 43 ] and is currently being validated in adults. Portion sizes for individual food items were accessed from the Australian Bureau of Statistics ABS and unpublished data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey or the "natural" serving size for common items such as a slice of bread.
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Subjects were asked about frequency Bi girls to text in Collins their consumption over the previous 6 months. The frequency options ranged from 'Never' to '4 or more times per day' but varied depending on the food item. Twenty-one questions relate directly to the intake of vegetables and 11 to fruit, with seasonal availability of some fruits considered in the nutrient analysis.
The frequency categories were listed as for other food items, with the question, "When the following fruit is in season, how often do you usually eat it?